Suspecting the presence of nanoparticles, the team set out to identify the iron catalysts first. They then carried out investigations using an electron microscope to verify that the iron nanoparticles had been actually being shaped during catalysis. The next phase was to make sure that the iron nanoparticles had been the active catalytic agents. This was done with polymer and poisoning experiments which showed that just the iron atoms on the surface of a nanoparticle were active. But a further challenge remained. Catalysts, also cheap iron ones developed for these kinds of reaction, suffer one major downfall still, explained Sonnenberg.The new multi-layer hybrid nano-carrier designed by the extensive research team achieves layered having of three active pharmaceutical agents, filling the technology gap for the use of a nano-carrier as part of multi-drug treatment of pancreatic malignancy. The nano-carrier also significantly enhances tumor targeting and the potency of the drug while reducing its toxicities. The study findings were published in the prestigious academic journal Advanced Functional Materials recently. Pancreatic cancer may be the most devastating cancer in clinical conditions and is undoubtedly the king of cancers as the five-calendar year survival price is below 5 percent.