In britain, one in twenty patients undergoing medical procedures is at risk of developing contamination and SSIs account for one-third of all deaths following medical procedures. SSIs can occur when microorganisms naturally found on the epidermis of a patient enter the body when the skin’s defensive barrier is compromised through the surgical process. There are various guidelines that suggest essential steps health care services can take to lessen the chance of surgical site contamination, yet despite these suggestions SSIs continue to represent a significant and costly problem for the health care system. Related StoriesBD reviews quarterly revenues of $2.202B for Q4 2014, provides fiscal 2015 outlookCareFusion announces acquisition of U.K.‘The consequences are to some extent, reversible, once contact with nicotine stops.’ Related StoriesPublic policy needed to reduce stem cell tourism, state expertsASH study displays excessive smoking plays a part in ongoing poverty in West MidlandsFranziska Michor named recipient of NYSCF – Robertson Stem Cell PrizeThe effects of nicotine overuse are not necessarily new findings. Nevertheless; the specific effects of nicotine on stem cells and the musculoskeletal program are. Stem cells are generic cells that may give rise to specific cell types in the physical body, through an activity called cell differentiation.